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掌门一对一:英语常用句型之省略句用法大全

发布于 2018-05-04 12:00

  省略句是英语的一种常见句式。从构造上说,句子应该具有的成分,有时出于 修辞上的需求,在句中并不呈现,这种句子就叫做省略句(elliptical sentences)。其 特点是:尽管省去句子语法结构所需求的组成局部,但仍能表白其完好的意义。

  省略方式多样,从单词、短语到分句,都能够省略,而且各有肯定的连接关系, 不容臆断。英语书面语培训中心的教师还引见说,“省略”岂但是一种“以有为有”的最简便的表白办法,而且也是一种简 便至极、“虽无胜有”的修辞手段。

  1.并列句中某些相反成分(谓语)的省略。

  This beeper works well,but that one doesn ’t (work well).

  这个寻呼机工作失常,但那个就不行。

  I study at college and my sister ( studies) at high school.

  我读大学,我妹妹读高中。

  2.在when,while, if,as if,though,until,once,whether,unless 等衔接的状语 从句中,常省略跟主句相反的主语和be动词。

  When (I am) in trouble I always turn to her for help.

  当我有艰难时总是找她协助。

  The letter is to be left here until (it is) called for.

  这封信留在这里待领。

  3.无形式主语it的主语从句可省略that。

  It is an honor (that) I was invited to your birthday party.

  我很荣幸被约请参与你的生日聚会。

  It is the third time (that)I have come to China.

  这是我第三次来中国。

  4.在限度性定语从句中可省略作宾语的关系代词whom,which,that。

  That is the naughty boy (whom/that) we talked about last week.

  他就是咱们上周谈论的那个调皮男孩。

  Is this the radio (that which) you bought last Saturday?

  这是你上周六买的收音机吗?

  5.在direction(方向),way (形式),distance (间隔),time (工夫),times (倍 数)等前面所接的定语从句中常省略that,which,in which。The direction ( in which) we move abody can be changed.咱们挪动物体的方向是能够扭转的。

  The distance (which 或 that) light travels in one second is 300000 kilometers. 光每秒流传的间隔是30万公里。

  6.省略主语

  (1)祈使句、惊叹句、局部第一人称的陈说句、局部问句和答句中省去主语最 为常见。如:

  Leave him in peace !不要去打搅他!

  Come at one o,clock sharp.准一点钟来。

  Listen to me,children !听我讲,孩子们!

  Open the door!开门!

  Why not?为什么不?

  Why so?为什么这样?

  Anybody wishing to go?谁情愿去啊?

  (2)除祈使句外,还有其余省去主语的状况,如:

  Don ’t know.我不晓得。(省去主语)

  Beg your pardon.请原谅。(省去主语)

  Had a good time,didn,t you?玩得很好,不是吗?(省去主语you)

  Doesn ’t look too well.他神色不大好。(省去主语he或she)

  Looks like rain.像是要下雨了。(賓去主语it)

  (3)Therebe构造中的there有时也可省去,如:

  Must be somebody waiting for you. 肯定是有人在等你。

  Appears to be a big crowd in the hall.大厅里仿佛有一大群人。

  (4)在书面语中省略主语和连系动词。如:

  —How are you?你好吗?

  —(I am) Fine,thank you.很好,谢谢。

  (5)省略状语从句中的主语和连系动词。当状语从句的主语与主句的主语相 同,且状语从句的谓语局部含有连系动词be时,通常能够省略状语从句中的“主 语+系动词”。如:

  Where (it is) necessary,improvements will be made.

  哪儿需求,就在哪儿改良。 7.用so,not或其余手段来賓略上文或问句中的一局部或整个句子。

  —Can Emily do this work?埃米莉能做这项工作吗?

  —I think so.我想她行。

  —Did you know anything about it?这件事你以前晓得吗?

  —Not until you told me.你通知了我,我才晓得。

  8.在特定的上下文里,为了防止反复,作谓语、宾语或宾语补足语的不定式再 次呈现时,to后的内容常承前省略,只保存不定式符号“to”。如:

  I don ’t go swimming now but I used to.

  我如今不去游泳但我过来常去(游泳)。

  You can ’t work alone in the lab unless you are allowed to.

  除非失去容许,你不能独自在试验室工作。

  【注】不定式to之后的动詞是l)e或助动詞have时,要保存to后的be或 have。如:

  China is no longer what it used to be.中国已今非昔比。

  —Have you told Allen about the concert?你通知艾伦音乐会的状况了吗?

  —Sony,but I ought to have.对不起,我本应该(通知她的)。

  9.旧事题目要求精练醒目,需依据上下文的语境斟酌其省略局部。

  Boy 14,rescued from cliff face. (A boy of 14 has been rescued from cliff face.) 从峭壁上救下14岁的男孩。

  American President to fly to London. ( American President is to fly to London.)

  美国总统将飞往伦敦。

  10.留意在一些固定短语中某些介词的省略。

  They are (of) the same age.他们年龄相反。

  There is no use (in) explaining it to her any more.

  再向她解释这件事是无用的。 11.示意焦虑和担忧。

  How terrible !太可怕 了 !

  It makes me feel worried.这让我感到很焦急。

  It makes my hair stand on encl.这令我毛骨棟然。

  It makes me feel uneasy when I see her.看到她使我感到不自由。

  It’s a frightening thing to kill so many miners in the accident.

  那么多矿工在事变中遇难身亡,真是太可怕了。

  I'm really frightened to death to see the snake.看到蛇我。下得半死

  He got into a total panic when he saw the drowning child.

  看到孩子溺水他慌作一团。

  I dare not go out alone at night.早晨我不敢一集体外出。

  What ’s really scary is that the hurricane has caused so many losses. 真正令人恐怖的是飓风造成这么大的损失。

  12.表语的省略。在书面语中,省去表语的状况比拟普遍。如 —Are you ready?你们预备好了吗? —Yes,we are (ready).是的,预备好了。

  —Are you Mr. Smith?你是史密斯学生吗?

  —Yes,I am(Mr. Smith)•是的,我就是。

  —Are these your friends?这些人是你的冤家吗?

  —Yes,they are( my friends).是的,他们是我的冤家。

  —He ’s a real man.他是一个真正的人。

  —Who is (a real man) ?谁?

  —I think we ’re right.我想咱们是对的。 —I’m sure we are (right).我想是这样。

ellipsis is a common sentence in English. In structure, the elements that a sentence should have, sometimes it does not appear in the sentence because of rhetorical needs. This sentence is called elliptical sentences. It is characterized by the fact that although it is necessary to save part of the grammatical structure of a sentence, it can still express its perfect meaning.

has a variety of ellipsis, which can be omitted from words, phrases and clauses, and there are positive connections between them, and they can not be conjecture. English written language training center teachers also introduced that, "but a" omission "is the most convenient way to express for", but also a very simple, "no wins" rhetoric. The omission of some opposite elements (predicates) in

1. parallel sentences.

This beeper works well, but that one doesn 't (work well), this pager works out, but that doesn't work.

I study at college and my sister (Studies) at high school.

I read university, my sister read high school.

2. in when, while, if, as, if, though, until, once, whether, unless and other adverbial clauses cohesion, often omitted with opposite subject and verb be clause.

When (I AM) in trouble I always turn to her for, always find her assistance when I have difficulty.

The letter is to be left here until (it is) called for.

found this letter here. The main clause of the

3. non formal subject, it, can omit the that.

It is an honor (that) I was invited to your birthday, I am honored to be invited to your birthday party.

It is the third time (that) I have come to China.

this is the third time I came to China.

4. can omit the relation pronoun whom, which, that in the limit attributive clause.

That is the naughty boy (whom/that) we talked about last week.

he was the naughty boy we talked about last week.

Is this the radio (that which) you bought last Saturday?

this is the radio that you bought last Saturday?

5. usually omits that, which, in which in the attributive clause before direction (direction), way (form), distance (interval), time (time) and times (multiple). The direction (in which) we move abody can be changed. we move the object in the direction that can be torsional.

The distance (which or that) light travels in one second is 300000 kilometers. light is circulated at 300 thousand kilometers per second.

6. omitted subjects

(1), and imperative subjects, exclamation sentences, local first person statements, partial questions and answering sentences were the most common subjects. Such as:

Leave him in peace! Don't disturb him!

Come at one o, clock sharp. must come at one o'clock.

Listen to me, children! Listen to me, children!

Open the door! Open the door!

Why not? Why not?

Why so? Why is this?

Anybody wishing to go? Who would like to go?

(2) in addition to the imperative sentence, there are other provinces to save the subject, such as:

Don 't know. I do not know. (save the subject)

Beg your pardon. please forgive me. (save the subject)

Had a good time, didn, t you? It's very good, isn't it? (save the subject you)

Doesn 't look too well., he's not very good. (saving the subject he or she)

Looks like rain. is like it's going to rain. (guest to subject it)

(3) Therebe construction there sometimes can also be omitted, such as:

Must be somebody waiting for you., there must be someone waiting for you.

Appears to be a big crowd in the hall. hall seems to have a large group of people.

(4) omissions the subject and the conjunction in the written language. Such as:

- How are you? How are you?

- (I AM) Fine, thank you. is very good, thank you.

(5) omits the subject and connection verb in the adverbial clause. When the subject and the main clauses of the same subject, and the predicate adverbial clause contains local linking verb be, usually to skipping in "subject + verb". Such as:

Where (it is) necessary, improvements will be made.

where needs, where to improve. 7. with so, not or other means to a local or whole sentences or in questions above Binlve.

- Can Emily do this work? Can Emily do this job?

- I think so. I want her to do.

- Did you know anything about it? Do you know this before?

- Not until you told me. you notify me, I know.

8., in order to prevent repetition in the specific context, when the infinitive of predicate, object or object complement is rendered again, the content after to often assumes the former ellipsis, and only the infinitive symbol "to" is kept. Such as:

I don 't go swimming now but I used to.

I don't go swimming now but I come and go (swimming).

You can 't work alone in the lab unless you are unless it is lost, you can not work alone in the laboratory.

[note] the verb after the infinitive to is L) e or the auxiliary verb have, to save be or have after to. Such as:

China is no longer what it used to be. China has shrunk.

- Have you told Allen about the concert? Have you told the situation of the Alan concert?

- Sony, but I ought to have. sorry, I should have (notified her). The old

9. subject needs to be scouring and eye-catching, and should be considered in the context of the context of the context of the omission.

Boy 14, rescued from cliff face. (A boy of 14 has been rescued) saved the 14 year old boy from the cliffs.

American President to fly to London. (American President is to fly), the president of the United States will fly to London.

10. pays attention to the omission of some prepositions in some fixed phrases.

They are (of) the same age. they are the opposite of their age.

There is no use (in) explaining it to her any more.

to explain to her that it is useless. 11. signs of anxiety and worry.

How terrible! It's awful!

It makes me feel worried. makes me feel very anxious.

It makes my hair stand on Encl. that makes my hair bone.

It makes me feel uneasy when I see her. saw her make me feel not free.

It 's a frightening thing to kill so many miners many, so many miners were killed in the accident. It's terrible.

I' m really frightened to death to see the snake. to see the snake me. Under the

He got into a his total panic when he saw the drowning child.

saw the drowning child he be struck all of a heap.

I dare not go out alone at night. morning I dare not go out collectively.

What 's really scary is that the hurricane has caused so, which is really frightening is the damage caused by hurricanes. The 12. is

. In written language, eliminating the predicative condition compared to common. Are you ready? Are you ready? - Yes, we are (ready). Yes, it's ready.

- Are you Mr. Smith? Are you a Smith student?

- Yes, I am (Mr. Smith) - yes, I am.

- Are these your friends? Are these people your friends?

- Yes, they are (my friends). Yes, they are my friends.

- He 's a real man., he's a real man.

- Who is (a real man)? Who?

- I think we 're right., I think we're right. I 'm sure we are (right). I think so.